Prostatitis and BPH:

What is prostatitis and how is it treated?

Prostatitis (pronounced "PRAH-stuh-TYE-tis") is an inflammation or infection of the prostate gland. It affects at least half of all men at some time in their lives. Having this condition does not increase your risk of any other prostate disease.

Prostatitis Symptoms

  • Trouble passing urine or pain when passing urine

  • A burning or stinging feeling when passing urine

  • Strong, frequent urge to pass urine, even when there is only a small amount of urine

  • Chills and high fever

  • Low back pain or body aches

  • Pain low in the belly, groin, or behind the scrotum

  • Rectal pressure or pain

  • Urethral discharge with bowel movements

  • Genital and rectal throbbing

  • Sexual problems and loss of sex drive

  • Blocked urine

  • Painful ejaculation (sexual climax)

What is enlarged prostate or BPH?

BPH stands for benign prostatic hyperplasia (pronounced "be-NINE prah-STAT-ik HY-per-PLAY-zha").
Benign means "not cancer," and hyperplasia means too much growth. The result is that the prostate becomes enlarged. BPH is not linked to cancer and does not raise your chances of getting prostate cancer—yet the symptoms for BPH and prostate cancer can be similar.

BPH Symptoms

BPH symptoms usually start after the age of 50. They can include:

  • Trouble starting a urine stream or making more than a
    dribble

  • Passing urine often, especially at night

  • Feeling that the bladder has not fully emptied

  • A strong or sudden urge to pass urine

  • Weak or slow urine stream

  • Stopping and starting again several times while passing urine

  • Pushing or straining to begin passing urine


At its worst, BPH can lead to:

  • A weak bladder

  • Backflow of urine causing bladder or kidney infections

  • Complete block in the flow of urine

  • Kidney failure

BPH affects most men as they get older. It can lead to urinary problems like those with prostatitis. By age 60, many men have signs of BPH. By age 70, almost all men have some prostate enlargement.

The prostate starts out about the size of a walnut. By the time a man is 40, it may have grown slightly larger, to the size of an apricot. By age 60, it may be the size of a lemon.

As a normal part of aging, the prostate enlarges and can press against the bladder and the urethra. This can slow down or block urine flow. Some men might find it hard to start a urine stream, even though they feel the need to go. Once the urine stream has started, it may be hard to stop. Other men may feel like they need to pass urine all the time or are awakened during sleep with the sudden need to pass urine.

Early BPH symptoms take many years to turn into bothersome problems. These early symptoms are a cue to see your doctor.

Urine flow of normal (left) and enlarged prostate (right). In diagram on the left, urine flows freely. On the right, urine flow is affected because of the prostate pressing on the bladder and urethra.

How can BPH be treated?

About half the men with BPH eventually have symptoms that a bothersome enough to need treatment. BPH cannot be cured, 1 drugs or surgery can often relieve its symptoms. BPH symptom do not always grow worse.

There are three ways to manage BPH:

  • Watchful waiting (regular follow-up with your doctor)

  • Drug therapy

  • Surgery

Talk with your doctor about the best choice for you. Your symptoms may change over time, so be sure to tell your doctoi about any new changes.

Watchful waiting

Men with mild symptoms of BPH who do not find them bothersome often choose this approach.

Watchful waiting means getting annual checkups. The checku can include DREs and other tests. Treatment is started only if symptoms become too much of a problem.

If you choose to live with symptoms, these simple steps can help

  • Limit drinking in the evening, especially drinks with
    alcohol or caffeine.

  • Empty the bladder all the way when you pass urine.

  • Use the restroom often. Don't wait for long periods
    without passing urine.

Some medications can make BPH symptoms worse, so talk with your doctor or pharmacist about any medicines you are taking such as:

  • Over-the-counter cold and cough medicines (especially
    antihistamines)

  • Tranquilizers

  • Antidepressants

  • Blood pressure medicine

Drug therapy

Millions of American men with mild-to-moderate BPH symptoms have chosen prescription drugs over surgery since the early 1990s.
There are two main types of drugs used. One type relaxes muscles near the prostate while the other type shrinks the prostate gland. There is evidence that shows that taking both drugs together may work best to keep BPH symptoms from getting worse.

Alpha blockers

These drugs help relax muscles near the prostate to relieve pressure and let urine flow more freely, but they don't shrink the size of the prostate. For many men, the drug can improve urine flow and reduce symptoms within days. Possible side effects include dizziness, headache, and fatigue.

5 alpha-reductase inhibitor

This drug, known as finasteride, shrinks the prostate. It relieves symptoms by blocking an enzyme that acts on the male hormone, testosterone, to boost organ growth. When the enzyme is blocked, growth slows down. This helps shrink the prostate, reduce blockage, and limit the need for surgery.

Taking this drug for at least 6 months to 1 year can increase urine flow and reduce your symptoms. It seems to work best for men with very large prostates. You must continue to take the drug to prevent symptoms from coming back.

This drug is also used to treat baldness in men. It can cause these side effects in a small percentage of men:

  • Decreased interest in sex

  • Trouble getting or keeping an erection

  • Smaller amount of semen with ejaculation

It's important to note that taking this drug can lower your PSA test levels. There is also evidence that finasteride lowers the risk of getting prostate cancer, but whether it lowers the risk of dying from prostate cancer is still unclear.

BPH Medications

Category

Activity

Generic Name

Brand Name

Alpha-blockers

Relax muscles near prostate

doxazosin

tamsulosin

terazosin

prazosin

Cardura

Flomax

Hytrin

Minipres

5 alpha-reductase inhibitor

Slows prostate growth, shrinks prostate

finasteride

Proscar or Propecia

BPH surgery

The number of prostate surgeries has gone down over the years. But operations for BPH are still one of the most common surgeries for American men. Surgery is used when symptoms are severe or drug therapy has not worked well.

Types of surgeries include:

TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate) is the most
common surgery for BPH. It accounts for 90 percent of all
BPH surgeries. It takes about 90 minutes. The doctor passes
an instrument through the urethra and trims away extra
prostate tissue. A spinal block is used to numb the area.
Tissue is sent to the laboratory to check for prostate cancer.
TURP generally avoids the two main dangers linked to other prostate surgeries:

  • Incontinence (not being able to hold in urine)

  • Impotence (not being able to have an erection)

The recovery period for TURP is much shorter as well.

TUIP (transurethral incision of the prostate) is similar to
TURP. It is used on slightly enlarged prostate glands. The
surgeon places one or two small cuts in the prostate. This
relieves pressure without trimming away tissue. It has a low
risk of side effects. Like TURP, this treatment helps with urine
flow by widening the urethra.

TUNA (transurethral needle ablation) burns away excess
prostate tissue using radio waves. It helps with urine flow,
relieves symptoms, and may have fewer side effects than TURP.
Most men need a catheter to drain urine for a period of time
after the procedure.

TUMT (transurethral microwave thermotherapy) uses
microwaves sent through a catheter to destroy excess prostate
tissue. This can be an option for men who should not have
major surgery because they have other medical problems.


TUVP (transurethral electroevaporation of the prostate)
uses electrical current to vaporize prostate tissue.

Open prostatectomy means the surgeon removes the prostate through a cut in the lower abdomen. This is done only in very rare cases when obstruction is severe, the prostate is very large, or other procedures can't be done. General or spinal anesthesia is used and a catheter remains for 3 to 7 days after the surgery. This surgery carries a higher risk of complications than medical treatment. Tissue is sent to the laboratory to
check for prostate cancer.

Be sure to discuss options with your doctor and ask about the potential short- and long-term benefits and risks with each procedure.

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